SEC 8: How do you protect your data at rest?

Protect your data at rest by implementing multiple controls, to reduce the risk of unauthorized access or mishandling.


How Encryption Works in AWS
Securing Your Block Storage on AWS
AWS Key Management Service
Protecting Amazon S3 Data Using Encryption
Amazon EBS Encryption
Encrypting Amazon RDS Resources
AWS KMS Cryptographic Details Whitepaper
AWS Encryption SDK
AWS Crypto Tools
AWS cryptographic services and tools

Best Practices:

Improvement Plan

Implement secure key management

  • Implement AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS): AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) makes it easy for you to create and manage keys and control the use of encryption across a wide range of AWS services and in your applications. AWS KMS is a secure and resilient service that uses FIPS 140-2 validated hardware security modules to protect your keys.
    Getting started: AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS)
  • Consider AWS Encryption SDK: Use the AWS Encryption SDK with AWS KMS integration when your application needs to encrypt data client-side.
    AWS Encryption SDK
  • Enforce encryption at rest

  • Enforce encryption at rest for Amazon S3: Implement S3 bucket default encryption.
    How do I enable default encryption for an S3 bucket?
  • Use AWS Secrets Manager: AWS Secrets Manager is an AWS service that makes it easy for you to manage secrets. Secrets can be database credentials, passwords, third-party API keys, and even arbitrary text.
    AWS Secrets Manager
  • Configure default encryption for new EBS volumes: Specify that you want all newly created EBS volumes to be created in encrypted form, with the option of using the default key provided by AWS, or a key that you create.
    Default encryption for EBS volumes
  • Configure encrypted Amazon Machine Images (AMIs): Copying an existing AMI with encryption enabled will automatically encrypt root volumes and snapshots.
    AMIs with encrypted Snapshots
  • Configure Amazon RDS encryption: Configure encryption for your Amazon RDS DB clusters and snapshots at rest by enabling the encryption option.
    Encrypting Amazon RDS resources
  • Configure encryption in additional AWS services: For the AWS services you use, determine the encryption capabilities.
    AWS Documentation
  • Automate data at rest protection

    Enforce access control

  • Enforce access control: Enforce access control with least privileges, including access to encryption keys.
    Introduction to Managing Access Permissions to Your Amazon S3 Resources
  • Separate data based on different classification levels: Use different AWS accounts for data classification levels managed by AWS Organizations.
    AWS Organizations
  • Review AWS KMS policies: Review the level of access granted in AWS KMS policies.
    Overview of managing access to your AWS KMS resources
  • Review S3 bucket and object permissions: Regularly review the level of access granted in Amazon S3 bucket policies. Best practice is to not have publicly readable or writeable buckets. Consider using AWS Config to detect buckets that are publicly available, and Amazon CloudFront to serve content from Amazon S3.
    AWS Config Rules
    Amazon S3 + Amazon CloudFront: A Match Made in the Cloud
  • Enable Amazon S3 versioning and object lock
    Using versioning
    Locking Objects Using Amazon S3 Object Lock
  • Use Amazon S3 Inventory: Amazon S3 Inventory Amazon S3 inventory is one of the tools you can use to audit and report on the replication and encryption status of your objects.
    Amazon S3 Inventory
  • Review Amazon EBS and AMI sharing permissions: Sharing permissions can allow images and volumes to be shared to AWS accounts external to your workload.
    Sharing an Amazon EBS Snapshot
    Shared AMIs
  • Use mechanisms to keep people away from data

  • Implement mechanisms to keep people away from data: Mechanisms include using dashboards, such as Amazon QuickSight, to display data to users instead of directly querying.
    Amazon QuickSight
  • Automate configuration management: Perform actions at a distance, enforce and validate secure configurations automatically by using a configuration management service or tool. Avoid use of bastion hosts or directly accessing EC2 instances.
    AWS Systems Manager
    AWS CloudFormation
    CI/CD Pipeline for AWS CloudFormation templates on AWS