Root cause analysis (RCA)
Helps in identifying what, how, and why an event or failure happened resulting in corrective and preventive measure. Although the word "cause" is singular in RCA, experience shows that generally causes are plural. Therefore, look for multiple causes when carrying out RCA.
Applying the RCA process help you understand the causes of a failure, and how to prevent it from happening again in the future.
Effective RCA requires a focus on eliminating the problem, rather than just understanding it. You should be wary of cognitive biases that make you focus on recent occurrences (vs all), or looking for data that confirms your assumptions.